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Selko | Scientific research summaries center

Making sustainable dairy farming more profitable

Introducing a comprehensive collection of congress research abstracts and trial report summaries (TRS), carefully curated to provide valuable insights into the transformative potential of feed additives on dairy and beef ruminants.

These studies offer a deep dive into the various aspects of feed additive utilization, from optimizing feed efficiency and nutrient absorption to enhancing animal health and welfare. By exploring the scientific advancements and breakthroughs in this field, this compilation serves as an essential resource for farmers, researchers, and industry professionals striving to maximize productivity and sustainability in ruminant production systems.

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TRS 04 FS TMR | Selko TMR Dry and Selko TMR liquid efficacy test

Testing efficacy of Selko TMR liquid and Selko TMR dry on microbial development and temperature control. In a recent in-vitro lab test, the aim was to determine the efficacy of Selko TMR Dry and Selko TMR Liquid in controlling Total Mixed Ration (TMR) nonbeneficial microbial development and heating. The results of the test proved to be highly successful, showcasing the effectiveness of both products within a 24-hour period.

TRS 07 FS TMR | Selko TMR Dry in Autumn Italy

Once an animal is 30 days into lactation, the quality of the roughage is the only variable that can be used to improve performance. Selko TMR Dry can be used to improve quality of roughage at feeding and is therefore an essential product to improve sustainability of dairy farming. This study was performed at a well-managed farm, with high milk production and high hygiene standards but were having challenges in keeping the TMR fresh and prevent the heating of TMR even in the autumn season.

Selko Trial Guide | How to setup trials with Selko TMR

This Trial Guide outlines a guideline for a trial aimed at assessing the benefits of adding Selko-TMR to TMR rations on feed intake and milk production at high temperatures. It details the experimental designs for comparing groups of animals with and without Selko-TMR supplementation, focusing on maintaining consistent ration composition apart from the addition of Selko-TMR, and measures feed intake, milk production, and temperature variations during control and trial periods.

Selko TRS | Selko-TMR increases dry matter intake and milk production.

This Trial Report Summary discusses Total Mixed Ration (TMR), a feed blend of concentrate and roughage prone to rapid fermentation by micro-organisms from silage cutting to consumption. Selko's microbiological research reveals high yeast presence in TMR, which can quickly multiply, diminishing feed nutritional value and causing roughage heating.

TRS 01 FS TMR | Selko TMR Liquid is non-corrosive

This Trial Report Summary explores the efficacy of Selko-TMR, a mix of organic acids designed to inhibit yeast activity in total mixed rations (TMR), preserving the feed's nutritional value. It compares Selko-TMR's metal corrosiveness with water and propionic acid, revealing Selko-TMR's similarity to water in terms of corrosiveness, based on a 27-day test.

TRS 02 FS TMR | Selko TMR effectively inhibits Saccharomyces cerevisiae

This Trial Report Summary examines the effectiveness of Selko-TMR versus potassium sorbate in controlling yeast proliferation in Total Mixed Rations (TMR). Through microbiological research, it highlights the rapid fermentation and nutritional degradation caused by yeast in TMR. The study finds that while low levels of both substances show no inhibition of S. cerevisiae, higher concentrations (starting at 0.06%) significantly reduce yeast activity, with Selko-TMR demonstrating a more potent effect.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Increase milk production by preserving the nutritional value of the dairy ration with Selko TMR

Growth of micro-organisms in a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) for dairy cows reduces both the palatability and feeding value of TMR. Mitigate the growth of microbes in TMR to prevent heating is a critical step in proper silage management. In this study, cows were suffering from heat stress and a good TMR quality helps cows to cope better with heat stress and maintain milk production. Although feed intake was not different in this study, dairy cows fed the treated TMR tended to have a more moderate milk production decline after peak production compared to the controls. As a result, the Selko TMR group tended to produce up to 1.7 kg/day more milk compared to the controls.

Selko EAAP Abstract | The effect of Selko Vivalto on milk production of highly productive cows

Several researchers have shown that B-vitamin supplements can improve milk yield, composition, and metabolic efficiency in highly productive dairy cows. Feeding a blend of fat protected B Vitamins to high yielding dairy cows has the potential to improve production performance over the transition period. The results of this study suggest high yielding dairy cows can benefit from B Vitamin supplementation over and above what is thought to be produced in the rumen.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Reducing energy consumption to dry alfalfa using Selko Fylax Forte HC – a field trial

Italian hay’s exporter harvest alfalfa on the field and then dry it in an industrial dryer. Targeting for a higher moisture level to reduce energy consumption for drying while maintaining shelf life can be a challenge but can lower the costs. The aim of this study was to reduce dryer’s energy consumption while preserving the product’s shelf life by proper moisture management in a challenging condition. This trial showed that the use of Fylax Forte HC was effective in keeping alfalfa bales stable even at higher moisture levels which brought benefits in term of potential increase in volumes and reduced energy consumption.

Selko TRS | Selko IntelliBond trace minerals improve in vitro rumen fermentation compared to sulphate trace minerals

Compared to Selko IntelliBond, sulphate trace minerals reduce apparent organic matter disappearance (aOMD) in a 48 hour in vitro fermentation system. The use of Selko IntelliBond increased aOMD over both controls with no trace minerals added and the sulphate trace minerals. Sulphate trace minerals also increased apparent partitioning factor compared to Selko IntelliBond.

Selko TRS | Impacts of Selko IntelliBond copper, zinc and manganese on mature bull trace mineral status and spermatozoa characteristics.

Selko IntelliBond improved Cu and Zn status in breeding sires compared to anorganic trace minerals. Supplementation of bulls with Selko IntelliBond improved semen quality. Sperm progressive motility and concentration were increased.

Selko TRS | Selko IntelliBond improves feed intake and fibre digestion in lactating cows on a corn silage diet

Corn silage with higher NDF results in improved milk yield over conventional silage. Cows fed Selko IntelliBond have increased DMI (+0.6kg/day) and NDF digestion (+0.29kg/day) when compared to cows fed sulphate trace minerals. Selko IntelliBond trace minerals tend to improve NDF digestibility (+2.0 points).

Selko TRS | Effects of simulated rainfall on metal loss from three different trace mineral sources.

Selko IntelliBond trace minerals have significantly less metal loss than sulfate and organic sources when tested in a simulated 2 and 4 inch rainfall event in both a simple salt-based formulation and a complete free-choice mineral mix.

Selko TRS | Selko Toxo®-XXL reduces the chronic adverse effects of Fusarium mycotoxins in dairy cows

Trial carried out by Professor Gallo from the Piacenza University. Cows were challenged with Fusarium mycotoxins. If they were fed TMR with Selko Toxo XXL, milk production increased by 1.72 kg per day and the milk was more suitable for cheese production.

Selko Research Article | Effects of Supplementation of a Mycotoxin Mitigation Feed Additive in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Fusarium Mycotoxin-Contaminated Diet for an Extended Period

This study assessed the impact of a mycotoxin mitigation product (MMP) on lactating dairy cows exposed to Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated diets for an extended period. The MMP, containing smectite clays, yeast cell walls, and antioxidants, was found to mitigate mycotoxin-related negative effects on milk yield and quality, particularly in terms of protein, casein, and lactose. While the mycotoxin diet led to lower milk yield and feed efficiency, MMP limited the adverse effects on clotting parameters. The results shed light on mycotoxin risks for dairy cows' performance, milk quality, and cheese-making traits, emphasizing the benefits of MMP supplementation. Further research is needed to assess immune-metabolic responses and diet digestibility.

Selko Research Article | Enhancing dairy cow performance and fertility with prepartum and postpartum Selko LactiBute supplementation

D. J. Seymour, M. V. Sanz-Fernandez, J. B. Daniel, J. Martín-Tereso, and J. Doelman
Supplementing dairy cattle with Selko LactiBute (HFCG) before and after calving yielded promising results. Cattle receiving HFCG both pre- and postpartum had increased milk protein, fat, and energy-corrected milk yields during weeks 4 to 9 of lactation. Conversely, cattle receiving HFCG exclusively postpartum showed higher yields during weeks 9 to 14 of lactation. Additionally, prepartum HFCG led to earlier pregnancy confirmation. These outcomes suggest potential benefits in improving milk production and reproductive outcomes, possibly by reducing gut inflammation and affecting energy balance.

Selko Research Article | Enhancing dairy herd performance with Selko LactiBute supplementation

M.V. Sanz-Fernandez, D.J. Seymour 1, J.B. Daniel, J. Doelman, J. Martín-Tereso:
Selko LactiBute (HFCG) supplementation was studied in six commercial dairy herds with 907 lactating Holstein cows. HFCG, designed for hindgut fermentation, improved milk yield (3.6%), protein content (1%), protein yield (4.6%), and lactose yield (3.4%). It also showed a tendency to increase energy-corrected milk (3.1%). The analysis confirmed the effectiveness of HFCG in enhancing farm-level performance, rectifying underperformance relative to predictions during the control period. This study underscores HFCG's potential as a prebiotic supplement for improving dairy cow productivity and milk composition in commercial settings.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Early lactation trial with Selko Vivalto

Numerous studies have suggested supplementing B vitamins can have positive impacts on performance and reproduction. The objective of this study was to test the impact of a blend of fat encapsulated B Vitamins (Selko Vivalto, FeB) on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk components in high performing dairy cattle. The treatment group received FeB from 4 days in milk till 200 days in milk. Feeding a blend of fat protected B Vitamins to high yielding dairy cows has the potential to improve production performance and overall feed efficiency. The results of this study suggest high yielding dairy cows can benefit from B Vitamin supplementation over and above what is thought to be produced in the rumen.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Impact on milk production of feeding Selko Renergy during pre and post-partum period

The impact of a mixture of organic acids (Selko Renergy, MOA) on milk production was tested in a trial with 4 groups of 18 cows. The organic acids were fed to a pre-partum group from day -21 until calving, to a post-partum group from calving until 28 days in milk and continuously from -21 to 28 days in milk, whereas 1 group served as a controls. Feeding the mixture of organic acids both pre and post-partum significantly improved post-partum ECM production over no feeding the organic acid mixture.

TRS 06 FS TMR | Selko TMR Liquid Kempenshof trial

Preserving Total Mixed Ration (TMR) with Selko TMR benefits dairy cow milk production during high-temperature periods. Heat stress can reduce dry matter intake (DMI), affecting overall performance. In this study, despite a slight decrease in DMI during the adaptation period, cows fed TMR with Selko-TMR produced 1.7 kg/day more milk than the control group. This positive trend extended to milk protein, fat, and lactose yield. While milk fat and protein levels remained consistent, the use of Selko TMR helped maintain milk yield and overall herd performance during heat stress conditions, making it a valuable choice for dairy farmers.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Mycotoxin-deactivating Selko Toxo XXL supplementation in dairy cows fed Fusarium-contaminated diet

Limited scientific evidence on Fusarium mycotoxins impact is available in dairy cow performance and health, especially after longer exposition time. Also, information on the effects of these mycotoxins on milk cheese-making parameters is very poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate Selko TOXO® XXL in lactating dairy cows fed a Fusarium-mycotoxin contaminated diet, and the repercussions on cows’ health status and feeding behaviour, milk yield and quality, in term of cheese-making traits. The mycotoxin contaminated diet had a lower milk yield and feed efficiency than the Controls and TOXO-XXL diets.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Impact of Selko IntelliBond and water/feed deprivation on performance and metabolism of grass-fed beef

Two studies investigated how sources of Cu/Zn (including Selko IntelliBond) and 48-hours water/feed deprivation affects performance and metabolism of grass-feed beef cattle. Water/feed deprivation were able to impact nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters. After deprivation, animals receiving Selko IntelliBond were able to compensate, recovering BW faster, resulting in no performance differences between deprived and unrestricted feed and water. Additionally, Selko IntelliBond increased liver Cu and increased dry matter intake and neutral detergent fiber digestibility, although no changes in performance were observed when compared to inorganic trace minerals.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Life cycle assessment of Selko IntelliBond on the carbon footprint of a dairy farm

Pressure from milk processors on farmers to reduce their carbon footprint continues to increase. Thus, a life cycle assessment accessing the impact of Selko IntelliBond trace minerals was conducted by an independent, third-party expert, to determine its impact on the carbon footprint of dairy cattle. Data from this evaluation indicates that a reduction of the carbon footprint of 1.5-2.0% per kg of ECM can be expected when sulphates are replaced by Selko IntelliBond.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Effect of Selko LactiBute on hindgut dynamics and nutrient partitioning

Selko LactiBute containing rumen protected calcium gluconate (RPCG) fed as a dietary supplement has been consistently shown to increase milk and component yields in dairy cattle under both research and practical conditions. These responses are thought to be mediated by improvements in post-ruminal barrier function upon fermentation in the hindgut. Although its exact mechanism of action is currently unknown. Evidence from the available studies point to beneficial effects at different levels. The beneficial effects of RPCG on milk performance might be partially mediated by an improved barrier function, reducing the energetic requirements of intestinal damage and leaky gut, allowing for improved whole-body bioenergetics, and ultimately increased performance.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Selko LactiBute improves lactational performance

The effect of rumen protected calcium gluconate (Selko LactiBute) was tested in 3 dairy farms. Milk recording data were compared to predicted production based on genetic potential of each of the 3 dairy herds included in the trial. On all three dairy herds the persistence of milk production in cows fed rumen protected calcium gluconate was improved with up to 1.8 kg of extra milk per cow per day under standard conditions and up to 2.7 kg per cow per day when facing a respiratory disease challenge.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Effect of Selko IntelliBond and other mineral sources on 48-h in vitro fermentation

Four trials investigated the impact of trace mineral (TM) sources on in vitro fermentation. The first trial compared copper, zinc, and manganese inclusion between sulphate and Selko IntelliBond. The second trial assessed various manganese sources. The third trial examined different manganese sources, while the fourth trial focused on zinc sources. Selko IntelliBond showed promise in improving microbial biomass production and organic matter disappearance, suggesting its potential benefits in enhancing in vitro fermentation compared to other sources.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Effects of Selko LactiBute supplementation on lactation performance and fertility in multiparous dairy cattle

This study investigates the impact of Selko LactiBute supplementation (HFCG) on dairy cattle during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Selko LactiBute potentially reduces inflammation and enhances energy status. While no significant effects on culling or production were observed, cows supplemented with Selko LactiBute tended to return to oestrus earlier and achieve peak lactation sooner, possibly improving fertility and reproductive outcomes.

Selko EAAP Abstract | The impact of Selko IntelliBond C and Selko Intellibond Z on performance and ruminal bacteria diversity

Two studies examined the impact of trace mineral (TM) source on grazing beef cattle. The first study with 120 Nellore males found that hydroxy TM (HTM) improved average daily gain (ADG) and final body weight compared to inorganic TM (ITM). In the second study with cannulated Nellore steers, HTM supplementation increased the abundance of certain ruminal bacteria, such as Prevotella 1 and Ruminococcaceae, while decreasing others like Fibrobacter. These findings suggest that HTM enhances both cattle performance and the abundance of beneficial bacteria in the rumen.

Selko EAAP Abstract | Rumen protected Selko LactiBute increases average daily gain of beef

Calcium gluconate, as a prebiotic, enhances hindgut health and has demonstrated benefits in dairy cattle, elevating milk production. A study in steers revealed that it increased volatile fatty acids in the caecum and colon. In a trial with beef calves on a Spanish farm, those fed Selko LactiBute (Rumen Protected Calcium Gluconate, RPCG) exhibited lower faecal pH (5.8 vs. 6.2), reduced faecal starch (15.6% vs. 19.7%), and increased daily weight gain (8% in females, 7% in males).

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