SELKO TOXO-XXL

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Selko TOXO-XXL

Mitigating the effect of newly emerging mycotoxins on dairy performance with Selko-Toxo XXL

Newly emerging mycotoxins of dairy cows are causing problems with dairy cow performance

New mycotoxins are emerging in dairy cattle. Farms surveys in which samples are tested for multiple mycotoxins show that at least one mycotoxin is present in almost all samples of feed for dairy cows. These newly emerging mycotoxins can have a neagtive effect on rumen function and gut health of dairy cows, which means that a mycotoxin mitigation product for ruminants should bind mycotoxins in the rumen, but should also reduce absorbtion of mycotoxins into the bloodstream and deal with the systemic inflammation that can be the result of a challenge with mycotoxins in dairy cows.

Mitigating the negative effects of newly emerging mycotoxins on performance of the dairy herd

A mycotoxin management programme should include:

  • Early identification of contaminated feed stuffs for dairy cows
  • Crop management programmes that to reduce growth of molds, while the crops are still on the field but also during storage
  • Adding mold inhibitors and silage inoculants while crops are being ensiled
  • The use of mold inhibitors such as Selko TMR, these mold inhibtors should be sprayed on the face of the silage after cutting
  • Feeding mycotoxin mitigation products for dairy cows in case feed ingredients contaminated with mycotoxins can't be avoided completely

Selko Toxo-XXL

Selko Toxo-XXL

Selko Toxo®-XXL contains bentonite, a mycotoxin binder with at least 50% smectite, which has strong binding capacity for aflatoxins, ergot toxines and LPS. It also contains glucose biopolymers that stimulate gut barrier function of dairy cattle, purified β-glucans that improve the immune function of dairy cows and anti-oxidants that reduce the effect of systemic inflammation in dairy cattle. In addition to preventing the mycotoxins from binding, Selko Toxo-XXL also improves rumen and gut health, stimulates the immune system and reduces oxidative stress.

Administration

Selko Toxo-XXL for ruminants is presented as a dry powder. The recommended dose is based on the level of mycotoxins in the dairy ration and is 15 to 45 g per head per day:

  • in case of low mycotoxin toxicity: 15 g
  • In case of medium mycotoxin toxicity: 30 g
  • In case of high mycotoxin toxicity: 45 g

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Efficacy trial with Selko Toxo-XXL in dairy cows challenged with ZEA, DON and FUM Fusarium mycotoxins

Material and methods

Little is known about the adverse effects of commonly found levels of Fusarium mycotoxins on dairy cow performance, especially after a long period of exposure to feed contaminated with mycotoxins. A trial was carried out by professor Gallo from the University of Piacenza in Italy in which efficacy of Selko Toxo-XXL against 3 different Fusarium mycotoxins of diary cattle was tested. A total of 31 lactating Holstein cows were included in the study and they were exposed to the 3 different fusarium mycotoxins for a period of 54 days. There was a group that was exposed to low levels of fusarium mycotoxins, a groups exposed to high levels of fusarium mycotoxins and a group that was exposed to high levels of fusarium mycotoxins and treated with Selko Toxo XXL:

  • Negative control group: TMR with low levels of DON, ZEA and FUM, at 284.5, 43.2 and 129.6 µg/kg dry matter, respectively
  • Positive control group: TMR high levels of DON, ZEA and FUM at 1021.0, 196.8 and 238.4 µg/kg dry matter, respectively
  • Selko Toxo-XXL group: TMR also with high levels of DON, ZEA and FB at 1009.6, 248.5 and 241.7 µg/kg, respectively, and supplemented with 100 g/cow/day of Selko Toxo-XXL. Dry matter intake, milk production and milk solids were compared between the 3 groups. Milk coagulation propperties (rennet coagulation time, curd firmness traits and curd firmness 30 min after enzyme addition) were measured to test suitability of the milk for cheese production.

Figure 1: Dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy cows, expressed as percentage relative to the initial bodyweight, in negative controls on a diet with low levels of DON, ZEA and FUM mycotoxins (CTR), positive controls on a diet with high levels of DON, ZEA and FUM mycotoxins (MXT) or dairy cows on a diet with high levels of DON, ZEA and FUM mycotoxins in combination with treatment with Selko Toxo-XXL.

Results, dry matter intake of dairy cows

Contamination of the feed with high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins resulted in a reduction of dry matter intake of dairy cows (see Figure 1). Treatment with Selko Toxo-XXL resulted in an increase of dry matter intake, compared to both the dairy cows exposed to low levels of Fusarium mycotoxins and the dairy cows exposed to high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins.

Figure 2: Rumination time of dairy cattle in minutes per day of negative controls on a diet with low levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (CTR), positive controls on a diet with high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (MXT) or dairy cattle on a diet with high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins in combination with treatment with Selko Toxo-XXL.

Results, rumination time of dairy cows

Rumination time of dairy cows is indicative of rumen function. Contamination of the dairy feed with high levels of ZEA, DON and FUM mycotoxins resulted in a reduction of rumination time in the dairy cows included in the study (see Figure 2). Treatment of dairy cows with Selko Toxo-XXL resulted in an increase of rumination time compared to both the dairy cows exposed to low levels of ZEA, DON and FUM mycotoxins and the dairy cows exposed to high levels of ZEA, DON and FUM mycotoxins.

Figure 3: Production of Energy Corrected Milk (ECM) of dairy cows on a diet with low levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (CTR), dairy cows on a diet with high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (MXT) or dairy cows on a diet with high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins in combination with treatment with Selko Toxo-XXL for ruminants.

Results, milk production and quality of milk for dairy cheese production

The production of energy corrected milk (ECM) of the dairy cattle included in the study was reduced in the dairy cows on a diet with high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins, compared to the negative control cows fed the diet with low levels of Fusarium mycotoxins. The dairy cattle treated with Selko Toxo-XXL produced more milk compared to both the negative control cows on a diet with low levels of Fusarium mycotoxins and the positive control group on the cattle diet with high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (see Figure 3). Concerning milk quality, the milk fat concentration tended to be lower in negative control cows fed the diet with low levels of Fusarium mycotoxins compared to the dairy cows fed the diet with high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins and the group of dairy cows treated with Selko Toxo-XXL (3.52% vs. 3.74% and 3.80 %, respectively). Milk coagulation properties of the milk of dairy cows treated with Selko Toxo-XXL were comparable to the milk coagulation properties of the milk from dairy cows exposed to low levels of Fusarium mycotoxins and improved compared to the milk coagulation properties of milk from the cows exposed to high levels of Fusarium mycotoxins.

Conclusion of the trial with Selko Toxo-XXL in dairy cattle

Selko Toxo-XXL mitigated the effects of a challenge of dairy cattle with high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins (FUM). Treatment of dairy cattle with Selko Toxo-XXL resulted in an increase of dry matter intake (DMI and an increase in rumination time, suggestive of a better rumen function of the dairy cows included in the study. Selko Toxo-XXL also mitigated the negative effects of the mycotoxin challenges on dairy milk production. Treatment of dairy cattle with Selko Toxo-XXL increased the production of ECM by 1.88 litre//cow/day. The effects of fusarium mycotoxins on the suitability of milk for cheese production were mitigated by Selko Toxo-XXL.

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