Cows need a digestive, metabolic and immune adaptation to avoid systemic immune activation and inflammation
Milk production of dairy cows has increased dramatically over the last decades and continues to increase. During the last 30 years, it almost doubled in many countries of the world. This increase is mostly driven by genetics and improvement of feed conversion. The challenge modern dairy cows are facing at calving is huge, due to their genetic potential. At the beginning of lactation, energy demand to support lactogenesis increases by about 300% and calcium requirements increase by more than 65%. The metabolic requirements of the mammary gland that are a priority at the onset of lactation.